“A big city is…

Posted in Uncategorized by xlili on 05/08/2012

“A big city is always terra incognita.

No matter whether you live in it for a hundred years or for an hour.

He who opens the door to his house and goes perilous journey.

A mysterious land inhabited by strange creatures scurrying to and fro

in an unfathomable ritual dance opens out before his eyes,

Who are they?

Gloomy cannibals or harmless tribes?

What language do they speak?

what do they think of when casting glances at our lonely traveler?

Millions of doors, leading God knows Where…

Millions of windows, hiding God knows what…

Going to the baker’s is more exciting and dangerous than the ascent of Everest.

And then, in the evening, back to the ship

the tired traveller repeats the secret and incomprehensible word heard in the daytime.”

By Brodsky and Utkin

Codex Seraphinianus 

Posted in Uncategorized by xlili on 05/02/2012

Book: Codex Seraphinianus by Luigi Serafini

http://issuu.com/dylan_k/docs/luigi.serafini.-.codex.seraphinianus

The Valley of the kings

Posted in Uncategorized by xlili on 04/30/2012

The Valley of the Kings is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, tombs were constructed for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to theTwentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt). The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes (modern Luxor), within the heart of the Theban Necropolis.The wadi consists of two valleys, East Valley (where the majority of the royal tombs situated) and West Valley.

The types of soil where the Valley of the Kings is located are an alternating sandwich of denselimestone and other sedimentary rock (which form the cliffs in the valley and the nearby Deir el-Bahri) and soft layers of marl. The sedimentary rock was originally deposited between 35–56 million years ago during a time when the precursor to the Mediterranean Sea covered an area that extended much further inland than today. During the Pleistocene the valley was carved out of the plateau by steady rains.There is currently little year-round rain in this part of Egypt, but there are occasional flash floods that hit the valley, dumping tons of debris into the open tombs.

The quality of the rock in the Valley is inconsistent, ranging from finely-grained to coarse stone, the latter with the potential to be structurally unsound. The occasional layer of shale also caused construction and conservation difficulties, as this rock expands in the presence of water, forcing apart the stone surrounding it. It is thought that some tombs were altered in shape and size depending on the types of rock the builders encountered.

http://www.enotes.com/topic/Valley_of_the_Kings

sahara

Posted in Uncategorized by xlili on 04/26/2012

sahara

sketches

Posted in Uncategorized by xlili on 04/26/2012

                                          These tags point out the specific places of Sahara desert…

Sahara Desert

Posted in Uncategorized by xlili on 04/26/2012
The Sahara Desert is located in the northern portion of Africa and covers over 3,500,000 square miles (9,000,000 sq km) or roughly 10% of the continent. It is bounded in the east by the Red Sea and it stretches west to the Atlantic Ocean. To the north, the Sahara Desert’s northern boundary is the Mediterranean Sea, while in the south it ends at the Sahel, an area where the desert landscape transforms into a semi-arid tropical savanna.Since the Sahara Desert makes up nearly 10% of the African continent, the Sahara is often cited as the world’s largest desert. This is not entirely true, however, as it is only the world’s largest hot desert. Based on the definition of a desert as an area receiving less than 10 inches (250 mm) of precipitation per year, the world’s largest desert is actually the continent of Antarctica at 5,339,573 sq mi (13,829,430 sq km).

Geography of the Sahara Desert

The Sahara covers parts of several African nations including Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. Most of the Sahara Desert is undeveloped and features a varied topography. Most of its landscape has been shaped over time by wind and includes sand dunes, sand seas called ergs, barren stone plateaus, gravel plains, dry valleys and salt flats. Around 25% of the desert is sand dunes, some of which reach over 500 ft (152 m) in height.There are also several mountain ranges within the Sahara and many are volcanic. The highest peak found in these mountains is Emi Koussi, a shield volcano that rises to 11,204 ft (3,415 m). It is a part of the Tibesti Range in northern Chad. The lowest point in the Sahara Desert is in Egypt’s Qattera Depression at -436 ft (-133 m) below sea level.

Most of the water found in the Sahara today is in the form of seasonal or intermittent streams. The only permanent river in the desert is the Nile River that flows from Central Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. Other water in the Sahara is found in underground aquifers and in areas where this water reaches the surface, there are oases and sometimes small towns or settlements like the Bahariya Oasis in Egypt and Ghardaïa in Algeria.

Climate of the Sahara Desert

Although hot and extremely dry today, it is believed that the Sahara Desert has undergone various climatic shifts for the last few hundred thousand years. For example, during the last glaciation, it was bigger than it is today because precipitation in the area was low. But from 8000 BCE to 6000 BCE, precipitation in the desert increased because of the development of low pressure over ice sheets to its north. Once these ice sheets melted however, the low pressure shifted and the northern Sahara dried out but the south continued to receive moisture due to the presence of a monsoon.Around 3400 BCE, the monsoon moved south to where it is today and the desert again dried out to the state it is in today. In addition, the presence of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, ITCZ, in the southern Sahara Desert prevents moisture from reaching the area, while storms north of the desert stop before reaching it as well. As a result, the annual rainfall in the Sahara is below 2.5 cm (25 mm) per year.

In addition to being extremely dry, the Sahara is also one of the hottest regions in the world. The average annual temperature for the desert is 86°F (30°C) but during the hottest months temperatures can exceed 122°F (50°C), with the highest temperature ever recorded at 136°F (58°C) in Aziziyah, Libya.

Plants and Animals of the Sahara Desert

Due to the high temperatures and arid conditions of the Sahara Desert, the plant life in the Sahara Desert is sparse and includes only around 500 species. These consist mainly of drought and heat resistant varieties and those adapted to salty conditions (halophytes) where there is sufficient moisture.The harsh conditions found in the Sahara Desert have also played a role in the presence of animal life in the Sahara Desert. In the central and driest part of the desert there are around 70 different animal species, 20 of which are large mammals like the spotted hyena. Other mammals include the gerbil, sand fox and Cape hare. Reptiles like the sand viper and the monitor lizard are present in the Sahara as well.

People of the Sahara Desert

It is believed that people have inhabited the Sahara Desert since 6000 BCE and earlier. Since then, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Europeans have been among the peoples in the area. Today the Sahara’s population is around 4 million with the majority of the people living in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania and Western Sahara.Most of the people living in the Sahara today do not live in cities; instead they are nomads who move from region to region throughout the desert. Because of this, there are many different nationalities and languages in the region but Arabic is most widely spoken. For those who do live in cities or villages on fertile oases, crops and the mining of minerals like iron ore (in Algeria and Mauritania) and copper (in Mauritania) are important industries that have allowed population centers to grow.

from wikipedia

Posted in Uncategorized by xlili on 04/26/2012

Posted in Uncategorized by xlili on 04/25/2012

         

          

         

           

Richat Structure

Posted in Uncategorized by xlili on 04/24/2012

The Richat Structure,  which is the Eye of the Sahara, is a prominent circular feature in the Sahara desert of west–central Mauritanianear Ouadane. This structure is a deeply eroded, slightly elliptical, 40-km in diameter, dome. The sedimentary rock exposed in this dome range in age from LateProterozoic within the center of the dome to Ordovician sandstone around its edges.

Auroville

Posted in Uncategorized by xlili on 04/19/2012

 

 

 

 

Auroville was founded in 1968 by Mirra Alfassa and designed by Roger Anger